Lipidomics Reveals Dramatic Physiological Kinetic Isotope Effects during the Enzymatic Oxygenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ex Vivo
Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and the main precursor to the class of lipid mediators known as eicosanoids. The enzymes that catalyze the oxygenation of AA begin by abstracting hydrogen from one of three bis-allylic carbons within 1,4-cis,cis-diene units. Substitution of deuterium for hydrogen has been shown to lead to massive kinetic isotope effects (KIE) for soybean lipoxygenase (sLOX) oxygenation of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2). Yet, experimental determination of the KIE during oxygenation of AA and LA by mammalian enzymes including cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) has revealed far lower values. All prior studies investigating the KIE of PUFA oxygenation have relied on in vitro systems using purified enzymes and were limited by availability of deuterated substrates. Here we demonstrate the use of macrophages as an ex vivo model system to study the physiological KIE (PKIE) during enzymatic AA oxygenation by living cells using a newly synthesized library of deuterated AA isotopologues.