Typical drugs target enzymes, proteins, or gene pathways.  However, non-enzymatic in vivo processes include a large group of oxidation reactions in active membranes. The resulting oxidative damage to membranes is detrimental and, in diseased cells, cannot be sufficently controlled by antioxidants. The most susceptible membrane damage that puts cells at risk of death is in the mitochondrial membrane. This damage decreases membrane fluidity and compromises the ability of the lipid membranes to participate in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.  Peroxidized PUFA residues generate numerous types of highly toxic carbonyl compounds, which create further damage, cross-linking biomolecules, damaging proteins and causing DNA mutations.  This lipid peroxidation chain reaction is the target of Retrotope’s drug platform.